Majority versus minority: Governmentality and Muslims in Sweden Roald

Yuyuan Zhang

This is my notes about Muslims in Sweden, and of of my reading book, although it about Sweden, and some very similar with Norway.

Scandinavia and the Equitable Society

Scandinavian countries have a good track record of gender equality, openness to sexual orientation and same­sex marriage, and a flat social stratification, whereby education is often free, and where those out of work for redundancy, disability and retirement are taken care of by state­funded welfare. In addition, the Scandinavian countries are well known for being proactive in issues of the environment and economic sustainability. They are frequently referred to as holding a feminist ethic, for example in relation to maternal leave and child­care, and regularly appear at the top of the global indexes on quality of life. A European narrative of Scandinavia demarcates them as liberal, free and equal. 北欧国家性别的平等开放,良好的福利,女权主义在北欧国家表现明显。

An alternative interpretation of Scandinavian success, however, would locate these narratives of progress as simply markers of the successful application of neoliberal policies in small, nationally and ethnically cohesive contexts. This might be referred to, for example, as a form of ‘obligated freedom’: accepted so long as it is keeping with those practices of the self that best support the state and the economy. Foucault (2003, 2008) would have termed this a form of bio­political ‘governmentality’, whereby apparatus of the state (arts, politics, education, media) are distilled and distributed, and create subject positions that people come to live through and define themselves by. Indeed, it can be argued that in so­called ‘liberal societies’, the bio­politics of the managed population make radical political resistance much more difficult to enact, because equality is already assumed (but perhaps not questioned) by the people. 斯堪的纳维亚的成功,自由社会,义务自由

Beneath the surface of liberalism in Scandinavian countries is, then, a managed form of freedom and self­expression. Or, put another way, if Scandinavian countries are really that liberal: how can they produce instances such as those we saw in Norway in 2011, when Anders Breivik killed over 70 people in the name of far­right anti­Semitic racism? How is it that, in Scandinavian feminism, we see the denigration and social abjection of those women who are often marked as ‘foreign’ and therefore ‘dirty’ and ‘unclean’? How do right wing political parties manage to proliferate in Scandinavian parliaments with their anti­immigration policies? How much does language play a part in maintaining racial and ethnic hegemony? How liberal is the ‘equitable society’? 斯堪的纳维亚国家是真正的自由吗?女权主义是真正的存在么,自由怎么成为一个平等的社会。

This project will explore different constructs of equality and liberalism as part of the national identity of Scandinavian countries and in how it presents opportunities for equal education and gender mainstreaming policies, against neoliberalism, anti­immigration, the invisibility of ‘race’, and normalization of whiteness in this context. 探讨不同结构的平等和自由作为斯堪的纳维亚民族识别的一部分,和怎样提供平等的教育机会和性别主流化政策,反对新自由主义,反对移民的,隐形的种族在这个正常的苍白的内容。

  1. Majority versus Minority: Governmentality and Muslims in Sweden

多数党和少数党,政府和穆斯林

The article talk about the Muslim community in view of majority and minority dynamics in Sweden with focus on the values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence the minority少数 communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influence both the relationship Muslims and the non-Muslims.穆斯林是伊斯兰的派生词,是顺从真主,致力和平的人就是穆斯林人

9.11 whether this A1-qaida attack on US economic and political symbols of power was really a clash between these two civilizations? To analyze this violent event in view of other factors, first, the globalization of the media, and the Arab-speaking families got access to news from the world, as well as to critical political analyses of their own political leadership, and of the relation between the west and the rest, so it seems that this event is because the political rather than civilizational factors. Secondly, conflict between Muslim regions and the secularized west, third reason, the globalization of the western entertainment culture. Muslin consumers in particular have the impression of a western degenerating culture with sex and violence as he main ingredients. Islamist resistance to western cultural.

Case study: Sweden

Main discussed in Sweden but compare with Norway and in Denmark, to talk about how the relationship between the majority non-muslim population and muslim minority communities influences the behavior through two part: the coverage of immigrants in the media, and the Swedish populist party.

Receiving Sweden:

From 1930s, Sweden became a receiving country, and as the first Muslim community. The tartars established the first Islamic congregation in 1948, despite the increased immigration beginning in the 1940s, mid-1970s that a particular attitude towards immigrants was launched, characterized by the words “equality”, “freedom of choice”, and “partnership”. The article

introduces the rights of minorities “to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, or to use their own language”, thus indicating minority rights even in political and social development.

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